Rūmī, in full Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, additionally called by the honorific Mawlānā, (brought into the world c. September 30, 1207, Balkh [now in Afghanistan]—kicked the bucket December 17, 1273, Konya [now in Turkey]), the best Sufi spiritualist and writer in the Persian language, renowned for his verses and for his instructive epic Mas̄navī-yi Maʿnavī (“Spiritual Couplets”), which broadly affected supernatural idea and writing all through the Muslim world. After his passing, his supporters were coordinated as the Mawlawiyyah request.
Conceived: 30 September 1207, Balkh, Afghanistan
Kicked the bucket: 17 December 1273, Konya, Turkey
Complete name: Jalāl promotion Dīn Muhammad Balkhī
Covered: 18 December 1273, Mevlana Museum, Konya, Turkey
His poem Translated in
all the more prevalently basically as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a thirteenth century Persian writer, Hanafi faqih, Islamic researcher, Maturidi scholar, and Sufi spiritualist initially from Greater Khorasan in Greater Iran.Rumi’s impact rises above public lines and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, and the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent have significantly refreshing his otherworldly heritage for as far back as seven centuries.His sonnets have been broadly converted into a considerable lot of the world’s dialects and translated into different configurations. Rumi has been portrayed as the “most mainstream poet” and the “top rated writer” in the United States.
Rumi was destined to local Persian-talking parents,initially from the Balkh, which at the time was essential for the Khwarezmian Empire, yet is currently in present-day Afghanistan. He was brought into the world either in Wakhsh,a town on the Vakhsh River in present-day Tajikistan, or in the city of Balkh, in present-day Afghanistan.More prominent Balkh was around then a significant focus of Persian culture and Sufism had created there for a few centuries. The main impacts upon Rumi, other than his dad, were the Persian writers Attar and Sanai. Rumi communicates his appreciation: “Attar was the soul, Sanai his eyes twain, And in time from that point, Came we in their train”and notices in another sonnet: “Attar has crossed the seven urban areas of Love, We are still at the turn of one street”.His dad was additionally associated with the otherworldly genealogy of Najm al-Din Kubra.
Rumi lived the majority of his life under the Persianate Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, where he delivered his works and passed on in 1273 AD. He was covered in Konya, and his sanctuary turned into a position of pilgrimage. Upon his demise, his adherents and his child Sultan Walad established the Mevlevi Order, otherwise called the Order of the Whirling Dervishes, acclaimed for the Sufi dance known as the Sama service. He was let go alongside his dad, and over his remaining parts a sanctuary was raised. A hagiographical record of him is portrayed in Shams ud-Din Ahmad Aflāki’s Manāqib ul-Ārifīn (composed somewhere in the range of 1318 and 1353). This account should be treated with care as it contains the two legends and realities about Rumi. For instance, Professor Franklin Lewis of the University of Chicago, creator of the most complete memoir on Rumi, has separate segments for the hagiographical history of Rumi and the genuine life story about him.
Childhood and resettlement
Rumi’s dad was Bahā ud-Dīn Walad, a scholar, legal adviser and a spiritualist from Balkh, who was likewise referred to by the adherents of Rumi as Sultan al-Ulama or “Ruler of the Scholars”. The mainstream hagiographical attestations that have asserted the family’s plummet from the Caliph Abu Bakr doesn’t hang on nearer assessment and is dismissed by current researchers. The case of maternal plunge from the Khwarazmshah for Rumi or his dad is likewise seen as a non-authentic hagiographical custom intended to interface the family with eminence, yet this case is dismissed for sequential and verifiable reasons. The most complete lineage offered for the family extends back to six or seven ages to celebrated Hanafi jurists.We don’t get familiar with the name of Baha al-Din’s mom in the sources, just that he alluded to her as “Māmi” (casual Persian for Māma),and that she was a straightforward lady who lived to the 1200s. The mother of Rumi was Mu’mina Khātūn. The calling of the family for a few ages was that of Islamic evangelists of the generally liberal Hanafi Maturidi school, and this family convention was proceeded by Rumi (see his Fihi Ma Fih and Seven Sermons) and Sultan Walad (see Ma’rif Waladi for instances of his regular messages and talks).
At the point when the Mongols attacked Central Asia at some point somewhere in the range of 1215 and 1220, Baha ud-Din Walad, with his entire family and a gathering of supporters, set out westwards. As per hagiographical account which isn’t settled upon by all Rumi researchers, Rumi experienced perhaps the most well known spiritualist Persian artists, Attar, in the Iranian city of Nishapur, situated in the territory of Khorāsān. Attar quickly perceived Rumi’s otherworldly distinction. He saw the dad strolling in front of the child and said, “Here comes an ocean followed by an ocean.” Attar gave the kid his Asrārnāma, a book about the trap of the spirit in the material world. This gathering profoundly affected the eighteen-year-old Rumi and later on turned into the motivation for his works.From Nishapur, Walad and his escort set out for Baghdad, meeting a significant number of the researchers and Sufis of the city. From Baghdad they went to Hejaz and played out the journey at Mecca. The moving convoy at that point went through Damascus, Malatya, Erzincan, Sivas, Kayseri and Nigde. They at last got comfortable Karaman for a very long time; Rumi’s mom and sibling both kicked the bucket there. In 1225, Rumi wedded Gowhar Khatun in Karaman. They had two children: Sultan Walad and Ala-eddin Chalabi. At the point when his significant other passed on, Rumi wedded again and had a child, Amir Alim Chalabi, and a little girl, Malakeh Khatun.
On 1 May 1228, probably because of the relentless greeting of ‘Alā’ ud-Dīn Key-Qobād, leader of Anatolia, Baha’ ud-Din came lastly got comfortable Konya in Anatolia inside the westernmost regions of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
Education and encounters with Shams-e Tabrizi
Baha’ ud-Din turned into the top of a madrassa (strict school) and when he passed on, Rumi, matured 25, acquired his situation as the Islamic molvi. One of Baha’ ud-Din’s understudies, Sayyed Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Termazi, kept on preparing Rumi in the Shariah just as the Tariqa, particularly that of Rumi’s dad. For a very long time, Rumi rehearsed Sufism as a devotee of Burhan ud-Din until the last kicked the bucket in 1240 or 1241. Rumi’s public life at that point started: he turned into an Islamic Jurist, giving fatwas and giving lessons in the mosques of Konya. He additionally filled in as a Molvi (Islamic educator) and showed his disciples in the madrassa.
During this period, Rumi additionally headed out to Damascus and is said to have gone through four years there.
It was his gathering with the dervish Shams-e Tabrizi on 15 November 1244 that totally transformed him. From a cultivated instructor and legal scholar, Rumi was changed into an austere.
Burial place altar of Shams Tabrizi, Khoy
Tricks had gone all through the Middle East looking and appealing to God for somebody who could “bear my organization”. A voice said to him, “What will you offer as a trade off?” Shams answered, “My head!” The voice at that point said, “The one you look for is Jalal ud-Din of Konya.” the evening of 5 December 1248, as Rumi and Shams were talking, Shams was gotten back to the entryway. He went out, gone forever. It is reputed that Shams was killed with the intrigue of Rumi’s child, ‘Ala’ ud-Din; assuming this is the case, Shams for sure gave his head for the advantage of supernatural friendship.
Rumi’s adoration for, and his loss at the demise of, Shams discovered their appearance in an overflowing of verse sonnets, Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi. He, at the end of the day, went out looking for Shams and traveled again to Damascus. There, he understood:
For what reason would it be advisable for me to look for? I’m equivalent to
He. His pith talks through me.
I have been searching for myself!
Like other spiritualist and Sufi writers of Persian writing, Rumi’s verse discusses love which imbues the world. Rumi’s lessons additionally express the principles summed up in the Quranic section which Shams-e Tabrizi refered to as the pith of prophetic direction: “Realize that ‘There is no god except for He,’ and ask pardoning for your wrongdoing” (Q. 47:19). In the translation credited to Shams, the initial segment of the stanza orders the humankind to look for information on tawhid (unity of God), while the second educates them to invalidate their own reality. In Rumi’s terms, tawhid is lived most completely through affection, with the association being made unequivocal in his refrain that depicts love as “that fire which, when it blasts up, consumes with smoldering heat everything with the exception of the Everlasting Beloved.” Rumi’s yearning and want to achieve this ideal is obvious in the accompanying sonnet from his book the Masnavi:
از جمادی مُردم و نامی شدم
وز نما مُردم به حیوان برزدم
مُردم از حیوانی و آدم شدم
پس چه ترسم کی ز مردن کم شدم؟
حملهٔ دیگر بمیرم از بشر
تا برآرم از ملائک بال و پر
وز ملک هم بایدم جستن ز جو
کل شیء هالک الا وجهه
بار دیگر از ملک پران شوم
آنچ اندر وهم ناید آن شوم
پس عدم گردم عدم چون ارغنون
گویدم که انا الیه راجعون
I kicked the bucket to the mineral state and turned into a plant,
I kicked the bucket to the vegetal state and arrived at animality,
I kicked the bucket to the creature state and turned into a man,
At that point what would it be advisable for me to fear? I have never gotten less from biting the dust.
At the following charge (forward) I will pass on to human instinct,
So I may lift up (my) head and wings (and take off) among the blessed messengers,
What’s more, I should (likewise) bounce from the stream of (the condition of) the heavenly attendant,
Everything perishes aside from His Face,
Indeed I will get forfeited from (the condition of) the blessed messenger,
I will end up being what can’t come into the creative mind,
At that point I will get non-existent; non-presence says to me (in tones) like an organ,
Really, to Him is our return.
The Masnavi weaves tales, scenes from regular daily existence, Qur’anic disclosures and analysis, and mysticism into a huge and multifaceted woven artwork.
Rumi accepted enthusiastically in the utilization of music, verse and dance as a way for arriving at God. For Rumi, music assisted fans with zeroing in their entire being on the heavenly and to do this so seriously that the spirit was both pulverized and revived. It was from these thoughts that the act of spinning Dervishes formed into a custom structure. His lessons turned into the base for the request for the Mevlevi, which his child Sultan Walad coordinated. Rumi empowered Sama, tuning in to music and turning or doing the consecrated dance. In the Mevlevi custom, samāʿ addresses a mysterious excursion of profound climb through brain and love to the Perfect One. In this excursion, the searcher emblematically turns towards reality, develops through affection, relinquishes the conscience, finds reality and shows up at the Perfect. The searcher at that point gets back from this otherworldly excursion, with more noteworthy development, to cherish and to be of administration to the entire of creation without segregation concerning convictions, races, classes and nations.
In different sections in the Masnavi, Rumi portrays in detail the all inclusive message of affection:
The sweetheart’s motivation is discrete from any remaining causes
Love is the astrolabe of God’s mysteries.
Rumi’s number one instrument was the ney (reed flute).
Later life and death
Burial place sanctuary of Rumi, Konya
Mewlana had been unexpectedly creating ghazals (Persian sonnets), and these had been gathered in the Divan-I Kabir or Diwan Shams Tabrizi. Rumi found another partner in Salaḥ ud-Din-e Zarkub, a goldsmith. After Salah ud-Din’s demise, Rumi’s copyist and most loved understudy, Hussam-e Chalabi, accepted the job of Rumi’s partner. At some point, both of them were meandering through the Meram grape plantations outside Konya when Hussam depicted to Rumi a thought he had: “If you somehow managed to compose a book like the Ilāhīnāma of Sanai or the Mantiq ut-Tayr of ‘Attar, it would turn into the partner of numerous singers. They would fill their hearts from your work and form music to go with it.” Rumi grinned and took out a piece of paper on which were composed the initial eighteen lines of his Masnavi, starting with:
Tune in to the reed and the story it tells,
How it sings of separation…
Hussam begged Rumi to compose more. Rumi went through the following twelve years of his life in Anatolia directing the six volumes of this magnum opus, the Masnavi, to Hussam.
In December 1273, Rumi became sick; he anticipated his own passing and created the notable ghazal, which starts with the stanza:
How doest thou understand what kind of ruler I have inside me as friend?
Try not to give occasion to feel qualms about thy look my brilliant face, for I have iron legs.
Rumi kicked the bucket on 17 December 1273 in Konya. His demise was grieved by the different local area of Konya, with nearby Christians and Jews joining the group that combined to say goodbye as his body was brought through the city. Rumi’s body was entombed next to that of his dad, and a magnificent sanctum, the Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb, قبه الخضراء; today the Mevlâna Museum), was raised over his place of internment. His memorial peruses:
At the point when we are dead, look for not our burial chamber in the earth, but rather discover it in the hearts of men.
Georgian princess and Seljuq sovereign Gurju Khatun was a dear companion of Rumi. She was the person who supported the development of his burial place in Konya.The thirteenth century Mevlâna Mausoleum, with its mosque, ballroom, schools and living quarters for dervishes, stays an objective of journey right up ’til today, and is likely the most famous journey site to be routinely visited by followers of each major religion.