The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Kushan craftsmanship, likewise spelled Kusana, workmanship created during the Kushan line from about the late first to the third century CE in a zone that currently incorporates portions of Central Asia, northern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Kushan dynasty, Kushan also spelled Kusana, ruling line descended from the Yuezhi, a people that ruled over most of the northern Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and parts of Central Asia during the first three centuries of the Common Era. The Yuezhi conquered Bactria in the 2nd century BCE and divided the country into five chiefdoms, one of which was that of the Kushans (Guishuang). A hundred years later the Kushan chief Kujula Kadphises (Qiu Jiuque) secured the political unification of the Yuezhi kingdom under himself.
Under Kaniska I (prospered first century CE) and his replacements, the Kushan realm arrived at its stature. It was recognized as one of the four extraordinary Eurasian forces of now is the right time (the others being China, Rome, and Parthia). The Kushans were instrumental in spreading Buddhism in Central Asia and China and in creating Mahayana Buddhism and the Gandhara and Mathura schools of craftsmanship.
The Kushans got well-to-do through exchange, especially with Rome, as their huge issues of gold coins show. These coins, which show the figures of Greek, Roman, Iranian, Hindu, and Buddhist gods and bear engravings in adjusted Greek letters, are observer to the lenience and to the syncretism in religion and workmanship that won in the Kushan realm. After the ascent of the Sāsānian tradition in Iran and of neighborhood powers in northern India, Kushan rule declined.A large portion of what is thought about Kaniska gets from Chinese sources, especially Buddhist compositions. At the point when Kaniska went to the seat is dubious. His increase has been assessed as happening somewhere in the range of 78 and 144 CE; his rule is accepted to have kept going 23 years. The year 78 denotes the start of the Shaka period, an arrangement of dating that Kaniska may have started.
Kaniska was an open minded ruler, and his coins show that he regarded the Zoroastrian, Greek, and Brahmanic gods just as the Buddha. During his rule, contacts with the Roman Empire through the Silk Road prompted a critical expansion in exchange and the trading of thoughts; maybe the most astounding illustration of the combination of Eastern and Western impacts in his rule was the Gandhara school of craftsmanship, in which Classical Greco-Roman lines are found in pictures of the Buddha.
The Kushans fostered a mixed culture that is best illustrated by the variety of deities—Greco-Roman, Iranian, and Indian—invoked on their coins. At least two major stylistic divisions can be made among artifacts of the period: imperial art of Iranian derivation and Buddhist art of mixed Greco-Roman and Indian sources. The best examples of the former are gold coins issued by the seven Kushan kings, the Kushan royal portraits (e.g., the Kanishka statue), and princely portraits found at Surkh-Kotal in Afghanistan. The style of Kushan artworks is stiff, hieratic, and frontal. Anatomy and drapery are stylized in the early period, and they are in stark contrast to the second style, which is typified by the Gandhara and Mathura schools of Kushan art.